Human Resource

Employee Morale : A conceptual Framework

1.1. Introduction:

Morale is an elusive thing. It is not easy to define, control or measure. But it exercises a potent influence on the human relations climate in an organization. Morale is a very widely used term. It generally refers to esprit de corps, a feeling of enthusiasm, zeal, confidence in individuals or groups that they will be able to cope with the tasks assigned to them. A person’s enthusiasm for his job reflects his attitude of mind to work, environment and to his employer, and his willingness to strive for the goals set for him by the organization in which he is employed. Morale is a synthesis of an employee’s diverse reactions to, and feelings for, his job, his working conditions, his superiors, his organizations, his fellow-workers, his pay and so on. Feelings, emotions sentiments, attitudes, and motives – all these combine and lead to a particular type of behavior on the part of an individual or his group; and this is what is referred to an employee or group morale.

1.1.1. Definition and Characteristics of Employee Morale:

Morale has been variously defined by different authorities. According to Yoder, “morale is a feeling, somewhat related to esprit de corps, enthusiasm or zeal. For a group of workers, morale, according to a popular usage of the word, refers to the overall tone, climate or atmosphere of work, perhaps vaguely sensed by the members. If workers appear to feel enthusiastic and optimistic about group activities, if they have a sense of mission about their job, if they are friendly with each other, they are described as having good or high morale. If they seem to be dissatisfied, irritated, cranky, critical, restless and pessimistic, they are described as having poor or low morale.”Employee Moral

Flippo has described morale “As a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives. Poor morale is evidenced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company, and associates.” According to Mooney, “morale is the sum total of several psychic qualities which include courage, fortitude, resolution and, above all, confidence,” Theo Haimann says: “It is a state of mind and emotions affecting the attitude and willingness to work which, in turn, affect individual and organizational objectives.” Davis observes: “Organizational morale is basically a mental condition of groups and individuals which determines their attitude.’ Prof. Mee, however, holds the view that “good employee morale is the mental attitude of the individuals, or of the group, which enables an employee to realize that the maximum satisfaction of his drives coincides with the fulfillment of the objectives with those of the company, and subordinates his own desires to those of the company.” Leighton observes: “Morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in the pursuit of a common purpose.”

Guion defines morale as “the extent to which an individual’s needs are satisfied and the extent to which the individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from his total job situation.” Miller and Form give three definitions of morale. “First, moral refers to the total satisfactions which the individual (or group members) acquires as a result of his membership and involvement in an organizational setting. Second, it relates to the states of motivational drives through which the individuals (or group members) tend to accomplish goals and face future challenges. Third, it is the consensus or “esprit de corps” revealed by a group which makes efforts towards the accomplishment of its goals.” In the opinion of Kahn and Katz, “morale is a combination of attitudes towards the company, job, and the immediate supervisor.” Milton L. Blum defines morale as “the possession of a feeling on the part of the employee of being accepted and belonging to a group of employees through adherence to common goals and confidence in the desirability of these goals,” Harrell considers morale as “a group concept having five components: (a) a feeling of togetherness, i.e., of belonging to a group and not being isolated; (b) a clear goal (which will be targets of production) set before them; (c) there must be an observer or perceived progress toward the attainment of the goal, i.e., expectation of success; (d) within the group each member feels that he has a meaningful task to perform and a supportive or stimulating leadership.” 13 According a Jucius, “morale is a state of mind or of a willingness to work which, in turn affects individuals and organizational objectives.” Morale, he adds, consists of “What is it?” “What does it do?” “Where does it reside?” “Whom does it affect?” and “What does it affect?” Jucius answers his own questions thus:”

What is it? — it is an attitude of mind, an esprit de corps, a state of well-being, and an emotional force.

What does it do? — It affects output, the quality of a product, costs, co-operation, enthusiasm, discipline, initiative and other ingredients of success.

Where does it reside? — It resides in the minds and emotions of individuals and in the reactions of their group or groups.

Whom does it affect? — It affects the employees and executives in their interactions. Ultimately, it affects the consumers and the community.

What does it affect? — It affects an employee’s or a group’s willingness to work and co-operate in the best interests of the individuals or groups and the organizations which they work.

It is obvious from the foregoing that the term morale means and includes:

(i) It a group feeling — a group assessment of conditions. It is esprit de corps;

(ii) It relates to the individual worker and his own perceptions of the existing state of well-being in the organization as it pertains to him;

(iii) It is an attitude of mind which results from the mobilization of energy, interest, and initiative in an enthusiastic pursuit of organizational goals;

(iv) Feelings, hopes, and sentiments which affect the willingness of the people to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of the common tasks;

(v) Courage, confidence and enthusiasm in the performance of a job; and

(vi) Job satisfaction.

In a very general way, morale may, therefore, be defined as a readiness to co-operate warmly in the tasks and purposes of a given organization. It is a manifestation of a worker’s strength, dependability, pride and confidence in, and devotion to, his work.

1.1.2. Individual and Group Morale:

Morale may be concerned with an individual. An individual’s morale is related to knowing one’s own expectations and living up to them. If one is clear of his own needs and how to satisfy them most of the time, his morale is high. Whereas an individual’s morale is a single person’s attitude toward life, group morale reflects the general esprit de corps of a collective group of personalities. Group morale is everyone’s concern and it must be practiced continually, for it is never ultimately achieved and is constantly changing.

Group morale and the morale of the individual are interrelated but not necessarily identical. They have an effect on each other. It is conceivable that an individual’s own personal perception of conditions may be low, or vice versa, but more usually the two share common feelings.

1.1.3. Factors Affecting Employee Morale:

Employee morale is a very complex phenomenon and is influenced by many factors on the shop floor. For example, the job the supervisor, the company and the working conditions, obtaining in it well as its policies; the group and interpersonal relations prevailing in that group; salary and other benefits; the employee’s family and home life; his social and community life; the policies and attitudes of the top management to its workers and trade unions — all these influence employee morale to a certain extent.

According to McFarland, the important factors which have bearing on morale are:

(i) the attitudes of the executives and managers towards their subordinates;

(ii) working conditions, including pay, hours of work, and safety rules;

(iii) effective leadership and an intelligent distribution of authority and responsibility in the organization;

(iv) the design of the organization’s structure which facilitates the flow of work; and

(v) the size of the organization.

Bradshaw and Krugman have listed the following factors which according to them, profoundly influence morale:

(i) Food and physical welfare;

(ii) Desire for achievement and getting over difficulties;

(iii) Reproduction (home-making);

(iv) Desire for safety variety and novelty

(v) Release from emotional tension;

(vi) Security or job and status;

(vii) Worthwhile group membership;

(viii) Sense of personal worth; and

(ix) A sense of participation.

The findings of Roach determined that twelve factors influence the level of morale:

(i) general worker attitudes towards the company;

(ii) general worker attitudes towards supervision being received;

(iii) the level of satisfaction with job standards subordinates,

(iv) the level of consideration the supervisor shows his subordinates;

(v) the workload and the work pressure level;

(vi) the treatment of individuals by management;

(vii) the level of workers pride in the company and its activities;

(viii) the level of worker satisfaction with salaries;

(ix) worker reactions to the formal communication network in organization;

(x) intrinsic job satisfaction levels of the workers;

(xi) worker satisfaction with the progress and opportunities for further progression; and

(xii) the worker attitude towards fellow workers; The more favorably these were perceived, the higher was the level of morale.

Applewhite reduces the factors affecting the level of morale to five viz.,

(i) the image of the company in the employee’s mind;

(ii) the general quality of supervision perceived by the employee;

(iii) the financial satisfaction or material rewards granted to the worker;

(v) the level of the intrinsic job satisfaction.

1.1.4. Determinants of Employee Morale:

Several criteria seem important in the determination of levels of workers morale, such as:

  1. The organization itself;
  2. The nature of the work;
  3. The level of satisfaction;
  4. The supervision received;
  5. The perception of the self;
  6. Worker’s perception of the past awards and future opportunities for rewards;
  7. The employee’s age;
  8. The employee’s education level and occupation level.

1. The organization: The organization influences a worker’s attitude to his job. For example, organizational goals would seem to him to be distant and unreal when he has little opportunity for establishing organizational objectives. The public reputation of an organization may build up, for better or worse, his attitude towards it.

2. The nature of work: The nature of the work he is called upon to perform influences his attitude to it. Many jobs of a routine or specialized nature make for the boredom of the employee, for obsessive thinking and alienation. According to Dr. Norman Wilson, the following conditions create a situation of stress for an employee:

(i) Forced uniform pacing (assembly-line operations moving at a constant speed);

(ii) Repetition and short-term cycles (repeating the same task over and over again);

(iii) Large impersonal organizational structure (the feeling of being only a cog in the machine instead of a person);

(iv) Organizational goals which, from the shop floor, appear to be vague and unattainable (a lack of understanding of organizational goals).

3. The level of satisfaction: The satisfaction which an individual obtains in his job is largely the result of the extent to which different aspects of his work situations are relevant to his job-related value system – such as the opportunity to learn a job, steadiness of employment, supervision, pay, cooperativeness or otherwise of the co-workers, working conditions, cleanliness, working hours, communication, recognition; individual adjustment and group relationship outside the job. If the job factors and the satisfaction they bring is perceived to be favorable to the worker, morale will tend to be higher than if the factors seem unfavorable.

4. Supervision received: The actions of the management exercise a tremendous influence on the morale of employees. High rates of turnover, for example, indicates that the leadership is ineffective.

5. Concept of self: How employees perceive themselves influences their attitudes to the organizational environment. For example, the morale of individuals who lack self-confidence or who suffer from a poor physical or mental health is generally low.

6. Worker’s perception of the past rewards and future opportunities for rewards: If the worker regards the rewards fair and satisfaction from them sufficient, morale will tend to be higher than if the perceptions are in the opposite direction.

If the worker looks to the future and perceives opportunities for satisfaction and for attainment in the rewards and conditions that lie ahead, morale will tend to be high, If, on the other hand, the rewards and opportunities for the future appear to be bleak, morale will tend to be dampened.

7. The employee’s age: Till recently it is believed that there was a “U” shaped relationship between age and morale. Morale was thought to be highest when people started on their job but subsequently declined until people reached their twenties. Then morale began to rise again. But today’s belief is that age and morale are directly related: that, other things, being equal older employees seem to have higher morale because perhaps younger workers are more dissatisfied “new breed” with higher expectations than their elders. Studies have reported that employers, therefore, hire workers of somewhat higher age, for they perceived in them these qualities:

(i) stability that comes with maturity;

(ii) a serious attitude towards job;

(iii) more reliability, less absenteeism, and proven steady work habits;

(iv) a sense of responsibility and loyalty; and (v) less tendency to the distracted by outside interests or influences.

8. The employee educational and occupational level: There has been found an inverse relationship between educational level and employee morale. In other words, the higher the educational level of an employee, the lower his job satisfaction — because he compares his own attainments with those of others. The higher he thinks he should be the more dissatisfied he is.

9. The employee’s activities: The relationship of an employee with his family and work group does influence his behavior and his attitude while he is on the job. His off-the-job activities (whether his family life is happy or whether he is given to drinking) affects his performance on the job, and therefore his morale.

The influences and pressures of a formal or informal group have a significant effect on the morale

It may be pointed out here that morale does not depend on any one of these factors but on their preponderance in any one situation. One or two of these factors may be missing; and yet the morale of the workers may be fairly high. Morale is like a table with five legs; if one of these legs is broken, the table will lose some of its stability.

(i) The confidence of the individual members of a group in the purposes of the group;

(ii) The confidence of the different members of the group in their leadership at all levels, and the ability and concern of the leadership for them;

(iii) The confidence which the members of a group have in their counterparts in the same group, the feeling that they know what they are doing, that they will be loyal to their group, that the other will be there when the ball is passed on to them;

(iv) The conditions in a group, including working conditions (such as pay, hours of work, cleanliness of the surroundings, prospects of a raise in pay, etc.), and the mental, emotional and physical conditions of the members of the group.

(v) Organizational efficiency – which means two things: the methods of operations and the way these operations are set up; the way the orders are given, information is passed up and down, and supplies are made available to workers.

1.1.5. Assumptions in the Understanding of Morale:

The following basic assumptions about people are significant because they are tied up closely with an understanding of what morale is:

(i) There are psychological uniformities which obtain among all tribes, nations, and races.

(ii) Each psychological uniformity has a range through which it varies. Some variants are characteristic of particular groups of people and form a part of their culture.

(iii) Everyone is disturbed by the following general stresses:

(a) Threats to life;

(b) Discomfort arising from pain, heat, cold, fatigue and poor diet;

(c) Loss of the means of subsistence, whether in the form of money, job, business or property;

(d) Deprivation of sexual satisfaction;

(e) Enforced idleness;

(f) Isolation;

(g) Threats to children and other members of the family and to friends;

(h) Restrictions on movement;

(i) Dislike and ridicule to which one may be exposed, and rejection by other people; and

(j) Capricious and unpredictable behavior on the part of those in authority on whom one’s welfare depends.

The personnel management carefully analyses these different items of morale because workers vary greatly in their ability to face a situation of stress and because it is capable of determining the impact which good or bad morale will have on the attainment of organizational objectives. By taking the necessary steps in time, it may improve the attitudes and morale of its employees.

1.1.6. Types of Morale:

Morale is generally referred to as high morale or low morale. According to McFarland, “high morale exists when employee attitudes are favorable to the total situation of a group and to the attainment of its objectives. Low morale exists when attitudes inhibit the willingness and ability of an organization to attain its objectives.”

High morale is represented by the use of such terms as team spirit, zest, enthusiasm, loyalty, dependability and resistance to frustration. Low morale, on the other hand, is described by such words and phrases as apathy, bickering, jealousy, pessimism, fighting, the disloyalty of the organization, disobedience of the orders of the leaders, dislike of, or lack of interest in, one’s job, and laziness. Morale is depressed by:

(i) A too fine division of authority and responsibility;

(ii) Too many supervisors;

(iii) An improper selection of personnel for new or expanded duties;

(iv) Too much reliance on organizational charts; and

(v) Too few real executives.

High or good morale is of tremendous importance for management and its employees. It generally indicates:

(i) Willing co-operation for the attainment of organizational objectives;

(ii) Loyalty to the organization and its leadership;

(iii) Good discipline or voluntary conformance with rules, regulations and orders;

(iv) Strong organizational stamina, or the ability of an organization to “take it” during times of emergency or difficulty;

(v) A high degree of employees interest in the job and in the organization;

(vi) A reasonable display of employee initiative; and

(vii) Pride in the organization.

Roethlisberger emphasizes the importance of high morale when he says: “What physical health is to a physical organism, morale is to a co-operative system.” Contrarily, low or bad morale generates an attitude of apathy, non-involvement, and non-cooperation.

1.1.8. Impact of Morale in Employee Performance Level:

It has been pointed out that “there is little evidence in the available literature that employee attitudes bear any relationship to performance on the job.”” The evidence available is rather confusing. There are three schools of thought, and probably all are correct to some extent. First, there are some who assert that high satisfaction leads to high performance. The “Hawthorne” studies of the 1930s seem to support this view, as do findings of other studies. Second, others take the opposite view. For example, Lyman Porter and Lawler say that satisfaction results from high performance; because most people experience satisfaction by accomplishing more tasks like building a radio, or clinching a sale.

Third, still, others claim that there is no consistent relationship between morale and performance. Vroom found a significant relationship between morale and performance in only 5 out of 22 studies undertaken by him.
Thus, although it is difficult to say if morale and performance are related, some employees do indeed work harder when they are more satisfied — with their pay, with the job itself, with working conditions, etc. Contrary to this, there are some persons whose performance starts to decline because the “incentive” is gone (i.e., they are satisfied with enough security or enough pay or good job). Still, there are some employees for whom morale and performance are more or less unrelated.

1.1.9. Measurement or Evaluation of Employee Morale:

The indicators of morale are the various attitudes and behavior patterns of employees, which have to be properly and correctly interpreted to determine the kind of organizational climate and mores which prevail at a given time. Since it is an intangible and subjective concept, it cannot be directly measured or evaluated. Employees may be unwilling to express their feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their job to the management. The questionnaires administered to them may not reveal their attitudes, and these cannot be determined by occasional interviews or casual observation. A properly designed program has, therefore, to be utilized to test the morale of individuals.

The most commonly used methods for measuring morale are:

(i) Observation;

(ii) Attitude or morale surveys;

(iii) Company records; and

(iv) Counselling.

1. Observation: By this method, executives observe the behavior of their employees, listen to them while they talk, and note their actions – the shrugging of shoulders, a change in facial expression, a shuffling of feet, a nervous fluttering of hands, a change in work habits or avoidance of company. Any departure or deviation from the normal is likely to tell them that something is wrong and needs to be set right.

Commenting on this method, Theo Haimann says: “The supervisor is in the best position to measure by observation the morale of his subordinates from day-to-day, but he must sharpen his powers of observation and must not brush aside any worthwhile indicator. The serious short-coming of observation as a yardstick for measuring current morale is that activities and events indicate a change to a lowered morale which has already occurred. The manager should, therefore, be extremely keen in his observation so that he may do as much as is possible to prevent such changes.”

2. The attitude of morale surveys: This method is generally used to discover the feelings of employees about their jobs, their supervisors, company policies or the organization as a whole. It is classified into two categories — the interview method and the questionnaire method.

(a) The interview method: By this method, employees are interviewed so that a judgment may be arrived at about their feelings and opinions about the different aspects of their jobs and company for which they work. An interview may be a face-to-face affair; it may be oral; may be in the form of an evaluation that is put down in writing. If interviews are to be relied upon, they must be employer-oriented. In this connection, Gillerman observes: “The essential advantage of this method is its sensitivity and comprehensiveness, while the main demerit is that is, to some extent, dependent on the interviewer’s ability to classify and interpret his data.”

(b) The questionnaire method: This method is generally used to collect employees opinion about the factors which affect morale and their effect on personal objectives. Attitude surveys may be used for subordinate and supervisory staff to determine employees reactions to such different subjects as employment tests, wage rates, and employee rating programs. Yoder, Turnball, and others have offered some guidelines for the planning of an employee morale attitude survey.

3. Company records and reports: These are usually prepared by the personnel department at regular intervals with the assistance of supervisors and department heads. The records and reports provide the following information:

(a) The number of workers who quit their jobs or are released every month or year in relation to the total workforce – that is labor turnover;

(b) The man-hours or man-days lost by employees who were absent from their jobs for various reasons;

(c) The number and kinds of worker grievances communicated to supervisors or other personnel, besides the suggestions received from employees for changes or improvements in company policies;

(d) The quantity and value of spoilt goods and rejects, and the complaints of the customer resulting from the substandard quality of products because of the carelessness on the part of workers; and

(e) Attention to personnel records and the behavior of workers including reports of personal interviews, ratings by supervisors, and information gleaned from exit interviews with workers, the disciplinary action taken against employees and the suggestions made by them.

4. Counseling: This method is used to find out the causes of the dissatisfaction of the employees and to take remedial action, and offer advice on personal matters. According to Keith Davis, counseling aims at:

(a) Providing advice to an employee on the cause of his dissatisfaction and rendering such assistance to him as may be called for in the circumstances;

(b) Giving him reassurance and courage to face up to his problems;

(c) Giving him information on company policies and gathering information for the management in regard to employee feelings and attitudes;

(d) Assisting an employee in thinking clearly about his problem; and (e) Re-orienting his basic goals and values.

1.1.9.1. Warning Sign of Low Morale of Employee:

Signs of low morale are generally not noticed till it is obviously low or when something has gone a miss. By the time the management recognized the fact the morale has deteriorated, it is faced with one crisis or another. Perceptive managers are, therefore, constantly on the lookout for clues to any deterioration in the morale of the employees. Among the more significant of the warning signals of low morale are:

(i) High rate of absenteeism;

(ii) Tardiness;

(iii) High labour turnover;

(iv) Strike and sabotage;

(v) Lack of pride in work; and

(vi) Wastage and spoilage.

1.1.9.2. Improving Employee Morale:

Whenever something is found to be wrong with the workers, it is obvious that there must be some cause of this situation. It may be that the policies or practices of the company are defective, or that its executives are at fault, or that the views of that whose-morale are low do not agree with those of the company or of its executives.

In such cases, a three-fold action may be initiated:

In the first place, it is essential to change the policy or to correct it immediately. Employees do not lose their respect for the boss who admits his mistakes, but they cannot respect one who makes too many, and they may have contempt for one who refuses to admit his mistakes. Second, misconceptions should be removed, and the correct position should be explained to the employees. Third, a reasonable attempt should be made to educate and convince employees.

In this respect, the following three-point plan may be adopted even when the morale of the employees is good:

(a) In the first place, it must be decided that a particular person will be responsible for the execution of the plan. Each executive should be told, preferably in writing what he should do to improve the general morale of the employees; he should know the extent of his authority and what his relations with other departments should be.

(b) A morale-building programme should be based on a clear conception of the theory that underlines it. A written statement should be prepared, clearly outlining the relationship between the company objectives and personal objectives and personal objectives and the process of integrating the interests of the two, and mentioning the results of good morale.

(c) Specific morale duties should be outlined for every executive.

Besides these, since morale is determined largely by worker’s perceptions. For example:

Managers can concentrate on supervisory styles, company policies, working conditions and other factors external to and out of the control of the workers to see that such factors are employee-oriented. Leadership styles that support the workers and encourage him may be applied. Policies and conditions that benefit the employees should be established, and effective communication channels should be developed. Suitable, consistent, equitable rewards, known in advance, should be provided to the employees for their performance.

For improving workers’ performance, managers should provide training for employees; create specific performance goals for workers to strive for; provide performance feedback on a regular and frequent basis; encourage neat, orderly work areas; arrange and increase the number of operations performed by each employees whenever possible; structure jobs so that workers can at least occasionally move about the work areas; and explore ways to assign greater responsibility to each individual.

It need not be emphasized that the promotion and maintenance of high morale are possible when certain positive measures are taken to bring job satisfaction to the employees and reconcile individual interests with the interests of the organization.

These positive measures are:

(i) Creation of whole jobs: Under this procedure, complete jobs are assigned to the workers. Jobs should be enlarged — that is, the complexity of a job should be increased so that it may appeal to their higher needs. On an assembly line, for example, a worker may be allowed to perform more than one specialized function.

(ii) Job enrichment: this involves greater use of the factors which are intended to motivate the worker rather than to ensure his continuing satisfaction with the job he performs. The idea is to reduce employee discontent by changing or improving a job to ensure that he is better motivated. Job enrichment also opens up for the employee an opportunity for greater recognition, growth, advancement, and responsibility.

(iii) Building responsibility into a job: Employees should be encouraged to take risk decision. This can be ensured by delegating authority to them.

(iv) Modifying the work environment: This involves the use of teams of work groups; developing the social contacts of the employees; the use of music; regular rest breaks.

(v) Flexible working hours: That is, introducing flexi-time and flexible working hours so that an employee may have enough time to look after his children and his family as well as after his personal affairs. In this manner, the rate of absenteeism can be reduced.

(vi) Job sharing or twinning: Under this system, two workers divide a full-time job between themselves, splitting not only the hours of work but also the salary. Husband and wife, or old persons, may prefer this procedure for sharing a job.

(vii) Rotation of jobs: Job rotation helps to reduce an employee’s boredom which arises out of the monotonous nature of his work.

By the adoption of this procedure, jobs may also be found for mentally retarded and physically handicapped persons. Imaginative managers can develop many more ways of making a job interesting for their employees.

To ensure the success of morale-building techniques, it is essential to have top management support for them. Supervisors and employees are generally educated, people. A climate of trust and understanding should, therefore, be created.

1.1.10. Employee Morale and Job Satisfaction

When we refer to the observations projected in various studies, it can be understood that job satisfaction is perhaps the most important aspect of morale.

Michael observes, “Morale and job satisfaction are closely tied to the basic concepts of attitudes and motivation.”43 Morale has a positive relationship with individual behavior also since morale is an indicator of need satisfaction. Obviously, job satisfaction and job involvement will be greater when morale is greater. At the same time, both morale and job satisfaction are closely linked with attitudes morale and productivity have also a positive correlation, though empirical evidence is not easily available for this purpose. Studies of Katz and his associates, Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman have also produced a valuable result in this respect.

1.1.11. Employee Morale, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Effectiveness: An Indispensable Link

Any organization irrespective of its nature and size consists of Individuals and groups. The effectiveness and efficiency of the organizations can, therefore, be attributed to individual and group effectiveness. As is known, through synergistic efforts, organizations are able to obtain high levels of performance than the sum of their parts. Organizational effectiveness is the result of a blend of a vast number of variables including technology, environmental constraints, and above all personal competence of the employees. The causes of individual effectiveness include physical attributes, personality traits and much more than that individual’s motives, morale and their level of job satisfaction. R.M.Steers (1975) reviewed seventeen ‘different approaches and found that the employee morale and job satisfaction as one of the most important criteria besides profitability, productivity, and adaptability – flexibility approaches for assessing the organizational effectiveness.

Employee morale and job satisfaction can sometimes be used as synonymous since they are mutually interrelated and interdependent. Job satisfaction of the employees cannot be understood isolating the moral environment. From the research studies it has been found that employee job satisfaction, though it is a subjective factor, but invariably be associated with the conducive and favorable attitude of the employees. Therefore, it can be premised that high morale will lead to positive motivation and this, in turn, will lead to job satisfaction. This ultimately determines the organizational effectiveness. Thus, survival, success including failure of an organization can be attributed to employee morale and the level of job satisfaction felt by the employees.

Job satisfaction is a dynamic and subjective factor. In a sense, job satisfaction will be changing from organization to organization and within the organization from person to person and within the human mind, it will be changing from time to time. Job satisfaction is the ultimate result and favorable attitude of the employees towards various organizational and job-related aspects in the changing competitive organizational world.

1.1.12. Summary:

To sum up, it can be observed that high morale can result in job satisfaction, constructive attitude, higher productivity, and better performance cost reduction cohesiveness, low absenteeism, better identification with the organizational goals, etc. At the same time, low morale can lead to low productivity, low job satisfaction, apathy and antagonism, fatigue and monotony, absenteeism and high rate of man days lost, high rate of migration of workers, strikes, conflict, and confrontation and disputes, negative attitude, etc. Thus, there is an indispensable and implied relationship between employee morale, job satisfaction, and organizational effectiveness.


Original Reference Article:

  • Mullapudi, R. S. (2014). Employee morale in commercial banks.
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