1.1 Introduction: Job satisfaction has always been a flashpoint of discussion among the researchers and scholars since long. This critical issue has gained enthusiastic attention of researchers all around the world after the beginning of industrialization, but now it is applied to each and every organization. The education system has also been changed into an organization. In the field of education measuring the job satisfaction of teachers has become a prime focus of attention for researchers to make it a dynamic and efficient one. The importance of job satisfaction in an education system is very vital than in any other organization. Education is not merely the transfer of information but the overall development of human personality. This can only be possible if teachers are satisfied with their jobs. Quality education and human development are only possible if the people involved in the system are satisfied with their work. There are two types of factors affecting job satisfaction Situational characteristics and situational occurrences: these are considered as major factors of job satisfaction. Situational characteristics are salary, supervisory practices, working environment, promotion, Whereas situational occurrences are either positive like extra vacation time, rewards, etc or negative like faulty equipment (Quarstein, McAfee, & Glassman, 1992),It is very important to provide teachers with the utmost facilities so that they must be satisfied with the status of their job. A better performance from a teacher can only be expected if they are satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction is only possible if the job fulfills the basic needs of teachers in terms of salary and better status as explained by Khan (1999), “salary or emoluments caters the material needs of the employees in allowing a sense of status and importance”.
1.2 concept of Job Satisfaction:
The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by “Hop Pock” in 1935. Job satisfaction is the end state of feeling. Job satisfaction is one of the important technique which is used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often been said that “A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLOYEE”. Job satisfaction is very important because of most of the employees spend their major part of their life at the workplace. A highly satisfied worker has better physical and mental well being. Job satisfaction is the integral component of organizational climate and important element in management. It is the positive emotional state that occurs when a person’s job seems to fulfill important job values, provided the values are compatible with one’s need.
Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their works. It refers to a collection of attitudes that workers have about their job. Job satisfaction is an attitude, which results from balance, and summation of many specific likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job. This attitude manifests itself in the evaluation of the job and employing organization. This evaluation may rest largely upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objectives and upon the perceived contributions of the job and employing organization to these ends. Thus a worker may like certain aspects of his work yet thoroughly dislike others. Both employers and employees want a more favorable climate because of its benefits, such as better performance and job satisfaction. Employees feel that the climate is favorable when they are doing something useful that provides a sense of personal worth. They frequently want challenging work that is intrinsically satisfying. Many employees also want responsibility and the opportunity to succeed. They want to be listened to and treated and valued as individuals. They want to feel that the organization really cares about their needs and problems (Davis, 1985). Overall job satisfaction is actually a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Intrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider only the kind of work they do and the tasks that make up the job, while extrinsic job satisfaction is when workers consider the conditions of the work, such as but not limited to pay, co-workers, management style and communication.
From the point of view of employees, job satisfaction may reflect benefits that people might be looking for when they take the job; these benefits are usually determined by the employer based on their strategy to be profitable and competitive in recruiting and retaining people. On the other hand job-related factors that affect satisfaction relate to employees’ desire to use their skills and abilities to make a meaningful contribution and to be valued. From an organization’s point of view, they employ people to perform specific tasks in order to achieve their business goals. When organizations find people who fit their job requirements and are happy with what is being offered, then a win-win situation is created between the employer and the employee. Job satisfaction refers to a general attitude resulting from various specific attitudes relating to specific job factors, industrial characteristic and group relation outside the job. Job satisfaction refers to a person’s feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness, or self-contentment but the satisfaction on the job. Satisfaction does mean the simple feeling state accompanying the attainment by an impulse its objective. Job satisfaction does mean the absence of motivation at work. Research workers differently described the factors contributing to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction.
Although in many instances the term “employee attitude” “job satisfaction” and “industrial morale” are interchangeably they are not synonymous. An “attitude” is not job “satisfaction”, although it may contribute to job satisfaction since the latter is composed of a number of attitudes. Similarly, job satisfaction is not the same as industrial morale it may contribute to morale. Job satisfaction is a collection of attitudes of employees towards their jobs. There are two extreme points of view within which one May chose a framework for the study of satisfaction. One view is to assure that satisfaction is a totality or unitary concept representing a state of mind in the individual, which has no single referent. This is not to say that satisfaction, or the individual’s satisfaction or dissatisfaction is determined by his total situation at work and at home in every aspect of his life, say work, skill over and become dissatisfaction in another. The second viewpoint, in the extreme, holds that an individual’s satisfaction can be separated for purposes of study into major areas such as his job, the pay he receives, his superior, the company he works for and so forth. The subject can identify and separate these elements consciously and indicate the relative degree of satisfaction.
Job satisfaction is defined as the “pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievement of one’s job values”. In contrast job dissatisfaction is defined as ‘the unpleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as frustrating or blocking the attainment of one’s job values or as entailing disvalues. However, both satisfaction and dissatisfaction were seen as a function of the perceived relationship between what on perceives it as offering or entailing. It is a worker’s sense of achievement and success is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, and being suitably rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work.
1.3 Meaning of Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction in simple words is
1) An individual’s emotional reaction to the job itself.
2) Refers to the general attitude towards work by an individual employee.
3) A collection of attitudes about specific factors of the job.
4) It can be defined as the extent of positive feelings or attitudes that individuals have towards their job.
Thus, job satisfaction relates to the inner feelings of a worker regarding his job. There are three important dimensions of job satisfaction:
- Job satisfaction refers to one’s feeling towards one’s job. It can only be inferred but not seen.
- Satisfaction in one’s job means increased commitment in the fulfillment of formal requirements. There is a greater willingness to invest personal energy and time in job performance.
- The terms of job satisfaction and attitudes are used interchangeably. Both refer to effective orientations on the part of individuals towards their work roles which they are presently occupying. Positive attitudes towards the job are conceptually equivalent to job-satisfaction and negative attitudes towards the job indicate job- orientations. Though the terms job-satisfaction and attitudes are used interchangeably there are differences between the two. Attitudes, as mentioned earlier, refer to a predisposition to respond. Job satisfaction, on the other hand, relates to performance factors. Attitudes reflect one’s feeling towards individuals, organizations, and objects. But satisfaction refers to one’s attitude to a job employee satisfaction is, therefore, a specific subset of attitudes.
1.4 Deffinitions of Job Satisfaction:
According to Brayfield and Rothe (1951), “Job satisfaction refers to the individual’s attitude (feeling) toward his work”.
Spector (1956) defined job satisfaction as “how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs.”
Again Mobey and Lockey (1970) expressed as an opinion that “Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are a function of the perceived relationship between what one expects and obtain from one’s job and how much importance or value one attributes to it.”
Schneider and Snyder (1975) cited in Sempane et al., 2002) conclude “job satisfaction is an individual’s personal assessment of conditions prevalent in the job, thus evaluation occurs on the basis of factors, which they regard as important to them”.
Locke (1976) defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from the appraisal of one’s job experiences.” In most studies, job satisfaction is described as how people feel about their jobs and their different aspects.
According to Hugh (1983), job satisfaction will be defined as “the amount of overall positive effect (of feeling) that individuals have towards their jobs”.
Newstrom (1986) defined job satisfaction, as “it is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings with which employees view their work.”
In direct contrast, Rue and Byars (1992) refer to “job satisfaction as an individual’s mental state about the job”.
Scherinerhorn (1993) defines “job satisfaction as an affective or emotional response towards various aspects of an employee’s work. The author emphasizes that likely causes of job satisfaction include status, supervision, co-worker relationships, job content, remuneration and extrinsic rewards, promotion and physical conditions of the work environment, as well as organizational structure”.
Similarly, Mc Namara (n.d.) points out that “job satisfaction refers to an individual’s feeling or state of mind giving heed to the nature of the individual’s work. The author further explains that job satisfaction can be influenced by a diversity of job dimensions, inter alia, the quality of the employee’s relationship with their supervisor, the status of the physical environment in which the individual works, degree of fulfillment in work”.
According to Cherrington (1994), research on “job satisfaction has identified two aspects to understanding the concept of job satisfaction, namely, the facet satisfaction and overall satisfaction”. These two concepts are explained as follows:
Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency for an employee to be more or less satisfied with various facets or aspects of the job (Johns, 1988). Cherrington (1994) refers to the various aspects or facets of the job as the individual’s attitude about their pay, the work itself – whether it is challenging, stimulating and attractive, and the supervisors – whether they possess the softer managerial skills as well as being competent in their jobs.
Overall satisfaction focuses on the general internal state of satisfaction or dissatisfaction within the individual. Positive experiences in terms of friendly colleagues, good remuneration, compassionate supervisors and attractive jobs create a positive internal state. Negative experiences emanating from low pay, less than stimulating jobs and criticism create a negative internal state. Therefore, the feeling of overall satisfaction or dissatisfaction is a holistic feeling that is dependent on the intensity and frequency of positive and negative experiences (Cherrington, 1994).
Greenberg and Baron (1995) defined “job satisfaction as an individual’s cognitive, affective and evaluative reactions toward their jobs”.
Spector (1997) refers to “job satisfaction in terms of how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs”.
Another view is that “job satisfaction is a behavior that shows the satisfaction level of an individual at their workplace” (Griffin, 2000).
Ellickson and Logsdon (2002) support this view by defining “job satisfaction as the extent to which employees like their work”.
According to Robbins and Sanghi (2006) “Job satisfaction is a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.”
Masud Ibn Rahman (2008) “Job satisfaction is defined as a general attitude toward one’s job. It is in regard to one’s feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work.”
1.5 The Nature of Job Satisfaction:
Job satisfaction is a complex phenomenon that has been studied quite extensively. Various literature sources indicate that there is an association between job satisfaction and motivation, motivation is hard to define, but there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction, performance, and motivation, whereby motivation encourages an employee, depending on their level of job satisfaction, to act in a certain manner (Hollyforde, 2002).
Job satisfaction is described at this point as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. Job satisfaction results from the perception that one’s job fulfills or allows the fulfillment of one’s own important job values, providing that and to the degree that those values are congruent with one’s needs. According to Kreitner et at (2002) job satisfaction is an affective and emotional response to various facets of one’s job.
According to Woods et at (2004), job satisfaction can be achieved when an employee becomes one with the organization, performs to the best of their ability and shows commitment; moreover, job satisfaction and performance are positively influenced by rewards. Kreitner et al (2002) identified various factors influencing job satisfaction, such as the need for management to create an environment that encourages employee involvement and manages stress in the workplace.
In order to understand job satisfaction, it is useful to distinguish morale and attitude, and their relationship to job satisfaction (Locke, 1968). Morale can be defined as the extent to which an individual’s needs are satisfied and the extent to which an individual perceives that satisfaction as stemming from the total job. Attitude can be defined as an evaluation that predisposes a person to act in a certain way and includes cognitive, affective and behavioural components.
Job satisfaction is important in predicting systems stability, reduced turnover, and worker motivation. If motivation is defined as the willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards attaining organizational goals, then well-functioning systems should seek to boost factors such as morale and satisfaction, which predict motivation. Job satisfaction refers to the feeling and emotions of employees in an organization. It includes the behavior pattern of people that can be favorable or unfavorable. The progress of work is directly related to job satisfaction. If employees are not satisfied with their jobs, the overall progress of the system is affected. The administrators should periodically study the job satisfaction of the employees and try to improve it by promoting human values and dignity.
1.6 Causes of Job Satisfaction:
The causes of job satisfaction can be categorized into organizational factors, group factors, and individual factors.
A. Organizational Factors:
There are five major organizational factors which contribute to as employee’s attitudes towards his or her job. They are
- Wages and Salaries: Wages and salaries play a significant role in influencing job satisfaction. This is because of two sons: First, money is an important instrument in fulfilling one’s needs; and two, employees often see pay as a reflection of management’s concern for them. Employees want a pay which is simple, fair, and in line with their expectations. When pay is seen as fair, based on job demands, individual skill level, and community pay standards, satisfaction is likely to result. What needs emphasis is that it is not the absolute amount paid that matters, rather it is one’s perception of fairness.
- Nature of Work: Most of the employees carves intellectual challenges on jobs. They tend to prefer being given opportunities to use their skills and abilities and being offered a variety of tasks, freedom, and feedback on how well they are doing. These characteristics make the job mentally challenging. Jobs that have too little challenge to create boredom. But too much challenge creates frustration and a feeling of failure. Under conditions of the moderate challenge, employees experience pleasure and satisfaction.
- Organizational Policies and Procedures: Organisational policies include the basis for effecting promotions, transfer of people, foreign assignments, layoff and retrenchment, appraisal and reward systems, motivational methods, skill-based versus job-based pay, and the like.
- Promotions: Promotional opportunities affect job satisfaction considerably. The desire for promotion is generally strong employees as if involves a change in job content, pay, responsibility, independence, status and the like. An average employee in a typical government organization can hope to get two or three promotions in his entire service, though chances for promotion are better in the private sector. It is not surprising that an employee takes promotion as the ultimate achievement in his career and when it is realized, he feels extremely satisfied.
- Working Conditions: Working conditions that are compatible with an employee’s physical comfort and that facilitate doing a job contribute to job satisfaction. Temperature, humidity, ventilation, lighting and noise, hours of work, cleanliness of the workplace, and adequate tools and equipment are the features that affect job satisfaction.
B. Group Factors: Group factors wielding influence on satisfaction include group size and supervision.
- Size of the Group: It is a truism to say that longer the size, lower the level of satisfaction. As the size increases, opportunities for participation and social interaction decreases, so also the ability of members to identify with the group’s performance. More members mean dissension, conflict, and groups within groups. All these do not augur well for the satisfaction of members.
- Supervision: Perceived quality of supervision is another determinant of job satisfaction. Satisfaction tends to be high when people believe that their supervisors are more competent, have their best interests in mind, and treat them with dignity and respect. Communication is another aspect of supervision. The satisfaction of members tends to be high when they are able to communicate easily with their supervisor.
C. Individual Factors: In addition to organizational and group factors are certain personal variables that have to bear on job satisfaction.
- First, several personality variables have been linked to job satisfaction. Among these are self-esteem, Type A behavior pattern and the ability to withstand stress. Stronger an individual is on these traits, tends to be more satisfied with his job.
- Second, status tends to influence one’s job satisfaction. Generally speaking, the higher one’s position in a hierarchy, the more satisfied the individual tends to be. Put another way, a dissatisfied employee may not stay at one place to reach higher positions in the organizational hierarchy.
- Third, job satisfaction is related to the extent to which people perform congruent with their interests.
- Finally, job satisfaction has been found to be related to one’s general life satisfaction the more the people are satisfied with the aspects of their lives unrelated to their jobs, the more they also tend to be satisfied with their jobs.
1.7 Consequences of Job Satisfaction:
There is a relationship between job satisfaction and productivity, employee turnover, employee safety, and job stress.
Job Satisfaction and Productivity Majority of the people believe that there is a positive relationship between satisfaction productivity. Lawler and Porter found that there is more evidence to suggest that job performance leads to job satisfaction. However, the saying that ” happy worker is a productive worker” is not always wrong. If people receive rewards with both intrinsic and extrinsic value and they feel that rewards are equitable they will be satisfied and this will leads to greater performance.
Figure: 1.9 Lawler-Porter Model of Performance and Satisfaction
- Job Satisfaction and Employee Turnover: Job satisfaction plays an important role in employee turnover. High employee turnover is a matter of concern for the management as it disrupts the normal operations and continuous replacement of employees. Though job satisfaction in itself cannot keep the turnover low, considerable job dissatisfaction will definitely increase the employee turnover.
- Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism: There is an inverse relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. When satisfaction is high, absenteeism is low. When satisfaction is low absenteeism is high. Management must be concerned with voluntary absenteeism as it is related to job satisfaction. Moreover, it is important to note that while high job satisfaction will not necessarily result in low absenteeism, but low satisfaction will definitely bring about high absenteeism.
- Job Satisfaction and Health of Employees: Dissatisfaction with once job may have especially volatile spillover effects on many other things such as family life, leisure activities, etc. Many unresolved personality problems and anal adjustments arising out of a personal inability to find satisfaction in his work. Both scientific study and casual observation provide ample evidence that job satisfaction is important for the psychological adjustment and happy living of the individual.
Article Collected From:
- Konka, S. (2015). A study on job stress and job satisfaction among faculty members belonging to krishna and guntur districts andhra pradesh.